Mushrooms grow on substrates, the composition of which is dominated by soil, forest litter, water, decomposing living organisms. Pictures can give only a basic idea of the appearance of mushrooms, so you should only collect well-known species in order to protect yourself from accidentally eating false varieties.
Type of food
The consumption of various organic components by mushrooms allows them to be divided into the following main categories or types:
- symbionts that form mycorrhiza and are mostly represented by species from the Boletaceae or Boletaceae family and the Amanitaceae or Amanitaceae families;
- parasitic fungi using host cells for nutrition;
- saprotrophs utilizing the organics of dead organisms;
- predators using soil animals for food.
To date, the description of a large number of mushrooms that are used for food purposes is known. Their fruiting bodies have high nutritional value and pleasant aroma. Almost all mushrooms have popular names, and the most delicious and expensive ones belong to the first category. Fresh mushrooms are used for cooking hot dishes, cold appetizers, as well as home preservation for the winter.
Unsuitable varieties of mushrooms can be characterized by:
- unpleasant odor;
- unpleasant taste;
- too small fruiting bodies;
- specificity of places of growth;
- very hard flesh.
There is other evidence of mushroom inedibility, including exotic external features: the presence of spines or scales, excessively soft fruiting bodies.
As a rule, unsuitable mushrooms have quite characteristic names reflecting their inedibility. Some of their species can be extremely rare, but, nevertheless, it is important to know what inedible mushrooms are. The list of unsuitable for eating mushrooms growing in our country is not too large.
Absolutely all poisonous varieties of mushrooms contain toxic, toxic substances that are capable of:
- cause severe food poisoning;
- provoke disturbances in the activity of the nervous system;
- cause death.
Currently, a little over a hundred poisonous species are known, and it is very important to know them so that mushroom dishes do not cause death or severe poisoning. A relatively small number of poisonous species grows in our country.
The use of medicinal mushrooms has been known to mankind since ancient times. Unicellular yeast fungi are used almost all over the world. The categories of the most famous wild medicinal mushrooms include:
- reishi tree mushroom;
- morel gouty;
- oyster mushroom ordinary;
- root sponge;
- griffin curly or Maitake;
- giant langermannia;
- lenzites birch;
- tinder fungus birch or birch sponge;
- chaga or birch mushroom;
- shiitake or black mushroom.
Edible Mushrooms: Varieties (video)
The benefits of fruiting bodies of edible species of fungi are due, among other things, to the ability to combat extra kilograms, which is the result of low calorie content and very high nutritional value of the product.