Gourds in most regions of our country are still a wonder, but the cultivation of watermelons and melons in a greenhouse or in a greenhouse has been gaining momentum in recent years, so many gardeners are interested in planting features and care techniques for such heat-loving plants in closed ground.
Watermelon Variety Selection
The greenhouse cultivation conditions have some significant differences from the cultivation of melons in open soil ridges, so due attention should be paid to the correct choice of variety. Usually, polycarbonate greenhouses are used for growing watermelons in regions with unstable climatic conditions, but also in the middle zone of our country, closed ground can become a guarantee of obtaining a high and high-quality crop.
How to grow watermelons in a greenhouse (video)
For growing watermelon in greenhouses, it is advisable to give preference to varieties with the shortest growing season.
Melon Variety Selection
The productivity indicators and the quality of the formed fruits directly depend on the correctly selected melon variety. Growing melon in greenhouse conditions is not difficult, but it is recommended to plant early ripe, unpretentious, highly productive varieties of this gourd. It should be borne in mind that Central Asian and southern varieties of melon need vaccination, which will increase the resistance of the plant to temperature changes in unheated greenhouses.
Seedling seedlings should be planted on greenhouses after warm weather sets in with average temperatures of 20aboutC. In the presence of high-quality heating, seedlings can be planted in May. Particular attention should be paid to soil preparation, including the removal of plant debris, deep digging and the application of mineral fertilizers. After the appearance of the third or fourth leaf on the seedlings, the melon plants are transplanted into pre-prepared planting holes.
The best precursor plants for melon are any leguminous crops, as well as onions and almost all root crops. The sowing pattern of pre-prepared melon seeds is approximately 40-50 cm between rows. The recommended density of melon cultivation is approximately 50-80 cm between the planting holes. The optimal scheme for growing melon: 140 X 60 - 70 cm between rows. The standard scheme for planting watermelon in greenhouse conditions is 180-200 x 60-80 cm.
Features of greenhouse care
To grow healthy and productive plants, you need to know the growing technology and especially the agricultural technology of melons in greenhouse conditions:
- the soil under melons must be loosened daily, carrying out this procedure shallow, which will prevent the risk of damage to the root system of plants;
- high-quality pre-planting soil dressing with humus and basic mineral fertilizers minimizes the need for root dressing;
- the formation of lashes of gourds is a prerequisite for obtaining a high yield;
- if necessary, you can form watermelons in one stem, timely removing all side shoots;
Watermelons: planting seedlings in a greenhouse (video)
- after germination or transplantation of a melon, when five or more leaves appear, the plant should be pinched over the fourth leaf;
- in greenhouses it is recommended to carry out manual pollination, which has a positive effect on the formation of ovaries.
It is very important to provide foliar fertilizing to greenhouse plants. To this end, throughout the growing season, with an interval of two weeks, the plants should be sprayed in the evening hours with a solution based on the Uniflor-micro preparation, which must be diluted at the rate of a couple of teaspoons in a bucket of warm water. You can replace such top dressing by adding AVA fertilizer granules during planting.
Caring for greenhouse melons is much easier when using special equipment:
- uniform illumination of plants contributes to the friendly ripening of the crop, so it is advisable to install vertical trellis in the greenhouse;
- correctly installed trellises do not allow lashes of gourds to come into contact with the ground, which helps to reduce the risk of plant damage by fungal or bacterial infections;
- watering is preferably done through a modern drip irrigation system of greenhouse plants;
- through a drip irrigation system, melon and watermelon can also be fed with liquid nutrient solutions;
- with insufficient light levels, lighting lamps should be installed, the number and power of which are calculated depending on the area of the greenhouse structure.
Very important when growing heat-loving melons in closed ground conditions is compliance with the ventilation regime, therefore, the greenhouse design must be equipped with doors and windows. With sufficient soil moisture, you should not exceed the optimum air humidity in the greenhouse and maintain it at 60%.
Disease and Pest Prevention
Preventive measures necessarily include high-quality and proper preparation of the greenhouse structure and ridges for planting gourds. In the spring, it is required to expose the greenhouse frame and soil to disinfection with a solution based on Bordeaux mixture or copper sulfate, which will reduce the risk of plant damage by fungal infections, to which melons are especially unstable.
The formation of melons in the greenhouse (video)
To destroy the wireworm, it is useful to treat greenhouse soil before planting seedlings with a solution of potassium permanganate or to add ammonium sulfate to the ridges. It should also be remembered that compliance with crop rotation in the conditions of home garden melon breeding contributes to a significant reduction in the level of pathogens in the soil, and for the purpose of prevention, timely spraying of greenhouse plants with fungicidal preparations must be carried out.