Gladiolus (Gladíolus) got its name due to the similarity of its leaves with a blade (from Latin “gladius” translates as “sword”). Otherwise, he is also called a fencer. All varieties of this plant, which number more than 8,000, appeared as a result of crossing wild species native to subtropical regions of Africa.
Gladiolus is a perennial tuberous bulbous plant, which each year forms a new stem, leaves and inflorescences, and by autumn a young corm is formed. The stem can grow up to 2 m tall. On it is an inflorescence, consisting of 16-22 large flowers. Their size can reach 20 cm. The corm is also quite large, from 3 to 8 cm in diameter, round, slightly flattened. She has a thin leathery shell, the color of which varies from light beige to dark cherry and depends on the particular variety.
Gladioli (or skewers) belong to the iris family. These are perennial bulbous plants, which, however, do not tolerate cold. They must be excavated in the fall, and planted in the spring. In the winter, flowers are spent in a cool, dark place. Therefore, gladioli are often grown as annual plants.
The gladioli have straight vertical stems, which can reach a height of 2 m. Long xiphoid and pointed leaves close around the stalk, giving the plant strength.
Flowers are collected in spike inflorescence. All of them have a simple perianth of 6 petals. But their shape can be very different. The bizarre bend of some resembles a butterfly, others look like an orchid, and others look like a lily. Flowers are:
The tips of the petals are most often simple, but fringed and corrugated can be found.
The corm of the plant dies after a year. Instead, one or two new corms appear. Near their base are small tuber-buds. Gladioli reproduce:
- tuber buds;
Before choosing seeds, you need to determine the variety. Consider the most popular varieties.
The most popular varieties:
- Gladiolus Jester. Powerful, tall plants with corrugated, yellow with raspberry stain, flower. Look great in tall vases.
- Gladiolus Cardinal. Well-corrugated large buds of bright red color on a stem with lush inflorescences are appropriate at ceremonial, status events.
- Gladiolus Green Star. Green Star buds are painted in deep lime green. Their juicy color and meter height of plants create a unique decor for your garden plot. Gladiolus Green Star - an amazing and paradoxical accent in any bouquet of flowers, amazing with its unusual and freshness;
- Gladiolus Anouk. Spectacular, tall plants with large flowers of bright lilac color with a white core;
- Gladiolus Wine and Roses (Vine and roses). A magnificent variety of flowers whose petals resemble the coloring of the wings of birds of paradise. Gladiolus vine and roses is stable in cutting and can stand for more than 7 days.
- Gladiolus is orange - in its color this flower has a lot in common with the fruit in whose honor it was named. It is the orange hue that is most suitable for describing this magnificent bright orange inflorescence. The plant itself reaches a height of 90-110 cm and is a representative of the undersized class. Orange is characterized by the presence of large bright colors that have a sufficiently large diameter and slightly creased edges.
- Gladiolus sea shell - this variety has delicate raspberry-pink inflorescences that shimmer from the middle of the flower to its edges. The diameter of its bud is 11-14 cm, and up to 12 large flowers can be formed on the stem at the same time. The height of the shoots reaches 100-120 cm, which gives this flower the opportunity to be used in various parts of the garden and be their decoration.
- Gladiolus pink lady - red-white flowers that are inherent in this variety, it is difficult not to notice among other plants. In addition, the form of inflorescence is quite sophisticated and contributes to its isolation from the total mass of garden plants. The corrugated edges framed by reddish veins create unforgettable external characteristics. The gladiolus pink lady has a height of 100-120 cm and can count up to 10-12 large flowers on its stem.
- Gladiolus plamtat - this purple-violet flower will be difficult not to notice on the flower bed, even despite its rather low growth. This variety reaches a height of only 80-110 cm. In this case, the shape of its inflorescence has a rather bizarre shape with curved edges. In turn, the size of the bud, combined with folds at the edges, makes the flower truly huge. It can reach 14-18 cm and count about 10-12 flowers on its shoot.
- Gladiolus goliath - is a striking representative of the dark varieties. Its inflorescences have a corrugated shape and range from light to dark tones of a brown hue. In this case, the number of flowers on one stem can reach up to 20-25 pieces, having quite impressive dimensions, comprising a diameter of 14-16 cm. Based on the need to keep all these elements, the shoot height varies from 150 to 160 cm.
- Gladiolus Sunny Raffle - under such a rather exotic name is a delicate flower of a pale pink hue with a red center. Its edges are slightly compressed, and the height of the shoot is 80-110 cm. The gladiolus Sunny Ruffle can have up to 10-14 colors, which have a magnificent appearance and excellent shape.
- Gladiolus “revival” is one of the most striking representatives of the tall varieties of this plant: the length of the shoots is 155-170 cm. Its color ranges from dark crimson to light purple and can shimmer from the center towards the edges. The diameter of 1 flower can reach 14 cm, and the inflorescence can contain up to 23 flowers, but only 8-9 of them are simultaneously in the open state. At the same time, the bud itself resembles delicate velvet to the touch, which is the hallmark of this type.
- Gladiolus “bukkako”, on the contrary, refers to low-growing varieties of plants and is only 100-120 cm in length. The color of flowers inherent in this variety varies from light brown to beige with dark veins. In this case, the inflorescence is characterized by small size and accommodates only 7-10 flowers, the size of which is 11-14 cm. The shape of the flower has folded edges and is characterized by a strong reaper.
- Gladiolus “Chocolate Girl” is best characterized by its name, has a rich color that resembles cocoa. Its monotony is violated only by small pink blotches located throughout the flower. The height of the stems of the plant reaches 160 cm and can accommodate up to 23 flowers. However, only 7-8 of them are simultaneously in the open state. The diameter of the flower is 12-13 cm, it is characterized by strong corrugation.
- Gladiolus “royal gift” has a pale pink tint that shimmers from the center to the edges of the bud. The height of the stems of this variety can reach 150 cm, on which up to 22-23 flowers are placed at the same time. At the same time, from the whole inflorescence, only 8-9 buds are present in the dissolved state, with a diameter of 15-16 cm.
- The gladiolus “passos” is another representative of the undersized species of this plant and reaches a height of 80-100 cm. Its stems are straight in shape and contain 7-10 buds. They have a triangular shape and unrivaled color. A dark lilac flower with small purple spots is one of the most striking images that exist in nature. Particularly impressive to the plant is the size of the flower, which varies between 14-18 cm.
- The “twilight” gladiolus has a purple hue and is characterized by a monotonous color. The height of its appearance is 160 cm, and the inflorescence contains 18-21 buds, of which 8-11 can bloom simultaneously. The size of the flower can reach 15 cm, and its shape in many ways resembles a star, thanks to which he received such a laconic name.
- Gladiolus "Espresso" 495 C, SG, 2015, Rodichev. The coding says that the variety has large flowers up to 14 cm (number 4). The numbers 95 say that the color is smoky, but quite saturated, closer to brown. The fact that this number is odd indicates the heterogeneity of the color. Indeed, the flowers of this variety have a small pinkish spot and a light arrow on the lower petal. Flowering period is medium. Flowers of medium degree of corrugation - in the form of pinches.
- The gladiolus "Dew in emerald" can be intriguing only by its name. And its code - 540, RS, OSG, 1999, Gromov - indicates that it has very large, highly corrugated flowers with a diameter of more than 14 cm. A very peculiar, iridescent pink color with an emerald border. Rather, it is not dew in an emerald, but an emerald in dew.
The Sacrament of Night variety has code 458, RS, SG, 2006, Baranov. This is a skewer with large, highly corrugated flowers. They have a red-black color and petals with the effect of velvety. The Mystery of the Night gladiolus, despite the even number of cipher, has white tips of the stigma of a flower adorning it. These are just gorgeous flowers that look great both on the flowerbed and in the cut.
Gladiolus "Countess" 543, SR, OSG, 2001, Kolganov. Although this variety, according to the code, belongs to pink, it has two-tone pink-yellow flowers. Lemon yellow predominates on the lower petals, and pink on the upper. The petals are very strongly corrugated with pinches, which gives the flowers a terry look. This variety with a powerful and slender stalk is really distinguished by count dignity and grandeur.
In the case of the purchase of imported varieties on the packaging with planting material there is usually no cipher of the variety. But there are its main characteristics.
Gladiolus "Kingston" bred outside of our country. Therefore, on the packaging with corms of this plant, usually no coding is found. Even if planting material is brought from abroad, it is pre-packaged mainly at our agricultural companies. But onion packages usually have a photograph and at least a brief description of the plant.
The main characteristics of this fennel hybrid are as follows: the plant is not very tall (up to 1 m), it blooms with a rich raspberry color. On the tucks of the petals there are strokes of a lighter tone. Large flowers do not cover the plant stem very tightly. This species of skewer blooms in July-September.
The variety "Purple flora" has a foreign origin, but successfully propagated and sold with us. "Ashes" in Russian is purple. However, very large flowers (up to 20 cm in diameter) plants have a beautiful rich purple hue. According to the shape of the flowers, it is classified as a butterfly stroke. This means that the dense petals are not laid in folds or pinches. But at the same time, flowers densely cover a powerful tall stalk (up to 2 m.). This variety will be a magnificent decoration of the garden in a solo planting or in combination, for example, with white skewers.
- Lace Bow. A beautiful flower, one of the most beautiful of the entire iris family. Lace Bow pleases the eye with highly corrugated petals and delicate shades. Petals have a soft pastel color, followed by a highlight of a pink and purple hue. The lower petals of each bud are different from the rest: they have a light golden color, the edges of the petals are lilac-pink. The flowers are very elegant, beautiful and unique in their color. These buds can become the main decoration of the festive table.
- Claudia It has a soft and pleasant vanilla-milk color. It attracts the eye with beautiful lace buds and splendor of flowering. The main shade of creamy tones, but the lower petal is slightly darker. An unobtrusive yellow-sand shade of the lower petal is the main feature of this species.
- Angelica is the daughter of the Goddess. The name alone says a lot about this flower. It is beautiful, sunny, with a pale orange color. The flowers are slightly corrugated, but the buds boast an interesting color. The main shades are three: pale yellow, orange and lemon. One shade is smoothly replaced by another. The corrugated tips of the buds are orange. Angelica is the daughter of the Goddess - it is a flower of summer, the sun, good mood and ringing laughter.
Flowers with a “Delicious” Name
This category includes flowers of a “tasty" shade.
- Gladiolus Chocolate is one of the most popular. It has a velvet-brown color with many shades. Color can be from fiery red to dark brown. Flowers are distinguished by their extraordinary beauty and simply stunning colors. A cluster of flowers resembles chocolate melted in the sun.
- All in chocolate. The name already clearly speaks of the color of the buds and its primary color. The variety is distinguished by a smoky brown hue, which is complemented by creamy yellow stains. There is a fringing. The flowers are highly corrugated, with a dense laying. An important feature - all 10 buds are open at the same time.
- Apricot Aroma. Flower with amazing colors. Juicy, sun-drenched petals have a pleasant apricot color with a soft and warm shade. The petals are highly corrugated, with a smooth play of apricot shades. A wonderful decoration for the garden, if it is difficult to determine the variety!
- Raspberry Liquor. Saturated corrugated petals have a bright crimson hue. The lower petal is sprinkled with silver moire. A great option for creating a bright contrast with the variety of Claudius.
- My love. A graceful corrugated flower in which pale yellow and lilac-pink tones are effectively combined. The peculiarity of the flower is that it has an interesting motley appearance. A variety of shades is complemented by highly corrugated edges that make the color play even more spectacular.
- Madam. Delicate, beautiful and unusually charming flower. The upper petals are characterized by a rich salmon color, the lower ones have cream spots. The closer to the edges, the more dense and saturated color. The variety has a dense texture of petals.
- Forest Nymph. An adorable flower with simply magical coloring. Two-tone petals have a garnet-red top and an olive bottom. The flower resembles a painting by a talented artist who wanted to convey the spirit of the forest in a decorative beauty. Thanks to the achievements of Russian breeding, other colors of this variety are also possible, for example, a combination of a soft yellow shade with purple-violet is widely known.
- Paul Gauguin. The buds are light brown in color with a large yellow spot on the lower petals, the background of which is decorated with a reddish-brown shading. Flowers are a bit like a translucent lady’s veil that someone supposedly forgot in the garden. A beautiful flower for a beautiful garden.
Luxurious large-flowered Bangladesh
The plant is bred in the hot tropical climate of Bangladesh. The perfect variety for a festive bouquet. He will be the favorite of the celebration, capturing the eyes of the guests. Lightly corrugated snow-white flowers with a golden center densely cover the stem. They look like a lush frill of a wedding dress or airy sweet marshmallows. The buds have a delicate honey tint, as if they glow from the inside with sunlight. The diameter of the opened flower exceeds 18 cm. The gladiolus of Bangladesh reaches a height of 120 cm. Some specimens grow to 150 cm.Flowering begins in July and lasts until mid-September.
Previously, a delicate motley flower was destroyed as a harmful wild-growing weed. Then they began to grow it as a cultivated plant. The meaning of the word “zizani” turned out to be the most suitable for the wild gladiolus saved from extermination. The name translates from French as "free." Gladiolus Zizani grows to 120 cm. We tolerate weather conditions and does not require special care.
Flowers of "free" gladiolus are small or huge. It has a bright color resembling chaotic brushstrokes of a snow-white color against a ruby background. Due to the combination of red and white, the plant is considered a symbol of love and innocence. Such a flower will decorate the bride's bouquet.
Gladioli Fidelio and Greyhound
The variety with rich pink petals got its name in honor of the romantic opera of the great composer Ludwig van Beethoven "Fidelio".
At the time of flowering, the height of the plant reaches 110 cm, so often it needs a special support. The stem and leaves are very dense, and the flowers are very large (up to 14 cm in diameter), with a thin white stripe that seems to divide each bud in half.
Plants of this species bloom from July to September. Note that cut flowers of this variety can stand in a vase for several days, without fading for a long time.
Among the general diversity, the gladiolus Greyhound stands out for its unusual color. At the time of flowering on a high stalk (up to 120 cm), white flowers bloom with delicate notes of gray and pink “rim” of a coral shade at the edges of the petals. Due to the fact that they have a corrugated edge, a unique play of shades is formed.
Plants of this species bloom in July and delight the eye almost until the end of October. Being cut off, they can stand in a vase for several days, maintaining their freshness.
Baccarat and Cobra
The bright and rich color makes the Baccarat gladiolus the center of any flowerbed, drawing everyone's attention to it.
Red petals have a thin white border at the edges and the same thin dividing strip in the center. This species blooms from July to September, the height of the stem varies within 1 m.
Experienced flower growers note the unpretentiousness of the variety, as well as its ease of propagation. Note that he loves sunny and windproof places.
Despite its “dangerous" name, the Cobra flower looks very attractive and luxurious. And all thanks to the rich purple color of the petals, which slightly corrugated edges give a charming originality.
Due to the fact that the flowers are densely located next to each other, they look monolithic. It looks very nice both on a flower bed and in a vase.
The Cobra variety has a rather high stem (up to 150 cm). It blooms from mid-July and blooms almost until the end of September.
Experts say that soil with low acidity and good drainage will be ideal for this plant.
Peter Pierce - This vibrant plant will become the visual center of a flower bed or flower bed. Variety Peter Pierce stands out among its "brothers" in the family of very large flowers. Their diameter reaches 18 cm, while most varieties of gladioli have a flower diameter within 14 cm.
Petals of the Peter Pierce variety have a rich orange color, which will distinguish them from other flowers. This variety has a rather tall stem (up to 2 m), and the height of the stem with flowers can be 80 cm.
Gladiolus Peter pierce begins to bloom in early summer, its flowering can continue until mid-September. Like his brothers, he loves plenty of sunlight and requires protection from the wind.
The flower variety Nova Lux also belongs to the large-flowered class. Its petals have a bright yellow color, they are slightly wavy and slightly twisted. Gladiolus Nova Suite will look great on a flower bed in combination with “brothers” of other, darker shades.
Like all large-flowered gladioli, this variety has a flower up to 18 cm in diameter. They are tightly planted on the stem, which creates a beautiful volumetric composition. The stem height reaches 130 cm, and the inflorescence itself grows up to 50 cm long.
Variety Nova Lux blooms in July and continues to delight gardeners with its bright colors until August. The flowering time lasts up to 20 days, and when cut off, they can retain their original appearance for quite some time.
Gladiolus Grand Duchess Elizabeth
This is truly a royal flower. It was bred not so long ago, in 2002, but has already won recognition from the world's leading flower growers. Having grown it, the owner of the site will become the owner of an excellent exhibition plant.
Gladiolus Grand Duchess Elizabeth has a magnificent view that distinguishes it from other plants. Petals have a pale salmon color with an admixture of pink, to the edges of the main color becomes more intense.
The gladiolus flowers of this variety have a very dense texture, incredibly corrugated edges give them an amazing airy look. They look equally interesting both in the flowerbed and in the bouquet.
This variety blooms from July to September.
In fact, salmon gladiolus is not even one specific variety, but a whole family. It is united by the main color, the shades of which can vary from the most delicate to bright and saturated.
Gladiolus Salmon, like its “counterparts” of other varieties, has tight-fitting flowers, the diameter of which varies within 15 cm. The main color is shaded by a lighter rim along the edges of the petal.
The height of the stem can reach 130 cm. It is recommended to combine it on a flower bed with “brothers” of darker varieties.
Few plants boast such a wide range of colors as gladiolus: from white to almost black.
If the second two digits are in code 00, then these are white varieties:
- 02, 04 - green gamma;
- 10 - 16 are yellow and cream gladioli;
- 20 - 26 - from orange to fawn;
- 30 - 36 - orange-pink (salmon);
- 40 - 46 - various shades of pink;
- 50 - 58 - red flowers;
- 60 - 68 - flowers of raspberry color of different intensity;
- 70 - 78 - lilac;
- 80 - 86 - from pale blue to deep purple, almost black;
- 90 - 98 - flowers from delicate smoky to deep brown.
Literal designations are easy to decipher. For example, PR - very early varieties, SP - mid-late, etc.
The next 2 or 3 letters indicate the degree of corrugation of the petals.
Scheme and landing time
It is best to plant gladioli in open areas where there is enough moisture, but the water does not stagnate. Land for planting should be loose and fertile. If the area where flowers are planted is subjected to excessive moisture, flower beds need to be raised just above the ground level. Before planting, it is recommended to add rotted sawdust to the ridges mixed with humus and sand. Bulbs should be planted on the same day that the soil has been prepared.
To get a strong plant with large flowers, after the appearance of the stems, you must leave one, the most powerful. In order to avoid infection, wounds from the removed stems are treated with brilliant green and covered with activated carbon.
Pre-planting care consists in the fact that in the spring the corms selected for planting are left in a warm and bright place for germination and treated with a strong solution of potassium permanganate in order to further protect the plant from diseases.
It is not enough to plant plants beautifully, it is also necessary to prepare the furrows in the aisles for irrigation. This eliminates the possibility of excessive flooding and water getting on the leaves, which will prevent their decay.
Germination of gladioli begins in the spring, after all the snow has melted and a constant positive temperature is established without night frosts. Depth of landing - 12-17 cm. The distance between the bulbs should be 10-20 cm, it depends on the size of the corms themselves.
For landscaping, flowers are planted in small groups in the vicinity of plants that bloom before and after fencing. However, most often gladiolus is grown for cutting. They are exceptionally good and spectacular in bouquets, and with proper care the flowers can remain fresh in the water for more than 10 days.
How to plant and store gladioli (video)
How to care for a plant: basic rules
Growing gladioli implies compliance with certain rules.
- It is necessary to maintain the depth of landing. In heavy soils, it should be equal to three bulb diameters, in light - four.
- Do not place large and small bulbs on the bed. Such specimens do not get along together - large specimens will oppress the smaller brothers.
- For more than 2 years in a row, gladioli have not been placed in one place; there will be no flowering.
- Even if you properly care for the plant, it will not develop if the climatic conditions are not suitable for it.
- What part of the plot should be given for the plant? It should be light, these flowers do not grow in the shade.
- When transplanting, planting a plant is on a different type of soil. If the flower originally grew on sandy soil, it can be transplanted to alumina, and vice versa.
- Planting should be carried out in a ventilated area, otherwise the flower may be affected by fungal diseases.
- Agricultural cultivation involves spraying with fertilizer the leaves of plants that develop in the sandy loam.
- 4 days before planting, the tuber is cleaned of scales, watering is carried out a day after planting.
- In the summer, flowers are watered in the greenhouse once every 7 days, but abundantly.
- Tall pieces must be tied.
- During the growing season, you need to feed the plants 3-4 times with mineral fertilizer (40-50 g per 10 liters of water), weeds should also be periodically thinned out, in which slugs often damage the flower culture.
Flowers propagate using tubers. Digging corms should be in the fall before the first frost, for the middle band this is September - early October. Large roots and stems are trimmed immediately and dried in a well-ventilated and dry place for 10-15 days. If the roots are heavily contaminated, they should be washed in warm water and only then laid on the dryer. Well-dried corms need to remove small roots, babies and old corms, and then planting material can be stored in a cool (4-8 degrees) place.
The propagation of flowers is carried out mainly by corms, seeds are very rare. Corms give good inflorescences for the first 4-5 years, then they need to be replaced with younger ones.
How to tie
Compared to lilies, the flowers of gladioli always tend up. If the stem deviates to the side, the inflorescence turns out to be crooked. In view of this, garter plays a large role in the cultivation of gladiolus.
The easiest way to garter is to create a do-it-yourself pylon support from pegs or bars and twine. The second option is preferable, since it will not be necessary to put a large number of pegs in the ground. It remains to simply walk along the row and tie the gladiolus with twine to the beam eight-shaped.
Combination with other plants
Gladiolus is a rather capricious flower both in choosing a place and in choosing a planting method, and not any neighbors will suit it. The number of plants also matters: if there are few flowers, it will look sparse, if there are many, the site will resemble a selection garden. To comply with the golden mean, you should adhere to such recommendations:
- As a tapeworm, gladiolus is not used. Typically, several bulbs of plants are germinated, and then they are planted together. Varieties with different contrasting colors planted together look beautiful. Another option is a combination of plants with rich in color and pastel flowers.
- Perennial gladioli are a poor neighbor for tall dahlias. Cultures will compete in the colorfulness of flowers.
- Varieties with small flowers should not be planted next to large-flowered varieties: large flowers are eclipsed by small ones.
- It is important to find out how many plants planned for planting bloom before decorating a flower bed. Gladiolus should be surrounded by plants that bloom for a long time, and their forcing should not cause problems. Optimal neighbors are daffodils, tulips, peonies and hydrangea.
Gladiolus: variety selection (video)
Gladiolus is a majestic tall flower that requires careful care. It is recommended to propagate it with bulbs, and in order for the plant to harmoniously fit into the landscape design, it is necessary for it to select suitable neighbors. Another important point that should be taken into account when growing gladiolus is that its tubers are dug up for the winter.