Riesling grapes are widely known under the synonyms of Riesling Rhine, White Riesling, Reinriesling, or Rheinriesling, as well as Rieslinok. The variety is in demand as a technical grape from the coast of the German Rhine River.
“Riesling” is considered to be a European variety, which, in accordance with its morphological characteristics and biological characteristics, can be assigned to the ecological-geographical group. Grapes of this variety have received wide distribution and are cultivated in countries such as Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czech Republic, Romania, Switzerland, America and Argentina. The variety is loved by many winemakers and is used in the manufacture of popular and sought-after white wines of high quality.
Saplings of this variety have medium growth strength and semi-sprawling, relatively thin shoots. Leaflets are rounded, three-lobed, with a characteristic weak dissection and funnel-shaped. The axial part of the shoots and the petiole have a peculiar reddish hue. In the autumn, leaf color is predominantly yellow. The flower is bisexual.
About five months pass before the moment of removable maturity. Bushes of strong growth, with a high level of ripening vines. Average yields are not high enough. In conditions of a tall stem, the average yield is an average of 157 c / ha. The number of fruitful shoots is at least 86%. The clusters are small or medium in size, cylindrical or cylindrical-conical, dense or loose. The length of the bunch can vary from 8 to 14 cm, the width - from 6 to 8 cm.
Riesling grapes: harvesting (video)
Berries are medium in size. Standard diameter does not exceed 15 mm. Berries have a characteristic round shape with a green-white color or a yellowish tinge. On the skin of ripe berries there are single, small in size, dark brown dots.
The skin is thin, but strong enough. Ripe berries have a very juicy pulp with a pleasant and harmonious taste. The average number of seeds per berry varies from two to four. Tasting evaluation of ripe berries is maximum. Sugar content of juice ranges from 18 to 20%, and acidity can range from 8 to 10 g / l.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Riesling is so popular that most wine growers can list not only the main advantages, but also minor disadvantages of this variety:
- high level of productivity with an average fruit bearing rate of 90%;
- the variety belongs to the category of cold-loving types of grapes;
- grapes of this variety are characterized by instability to oidium, and are also often affected by bacterial cancer and gray berry rot;
- resistance to mildew and phylloxera resistance are also insufficient. In addition, protection from a bunch of leaves is required;
- the variety is prone to such manifestations as shedding of flowers, ovaries and peeling of berries.
However, Riesling grapes overwinter easily in comparison with other covering varieties, and the most late opening of the eyes allows damage to the return frosts in early spring only to a small extent.
Planting rules and cultivation features
Riesling grapes are very demanding on plots designated for cultivation, which is due to the rather late ripening of berries. Good growth rates are observed when cultivated in cool climatic conditions.
When growing winegrowers should take into account the features of agricultural technology, which are of no small importance for the formation of a crop of quality berries:
- a standard planting pit should have a diameter of at least 60 cm, with a depth corresponding to the size of the root system of the seedling;
- the correct choice of the landing site is important, which should be represented by a sloping slope with soil having a sufficient amount of lime;
- it is allowed to carry out non-standard molding on four sleeves, the length of which can vary from 40 to 60 cm, both when growing with shelter in the cold season, and forming on high types of boles in an uncovered culture;
- when grown without shelters for the winter period, the height of the stem should be left a little more than a meter with a two-shouldered cordon and six fruit arrows;
- when growing on a fanless fan, a maximum load of about thirty shoots per plant should be maintained.
Cultivation measures are standard and consist in pruning, conducting timely irrigation measures and feeding. Both medium and long trim are used. The best stock is Berlandieri on the Riparia Kober 6BB.
Reviews of winegrowers
The leading features of the variety that allow gardeners to distinguish Riesling grapes from understudies are:
- the presence of funnel-shaped, rough, large wrinkled leaves with convex veins on the underside;
- the formation of green-yellow, with a slight bluish tint, berries with a specific varietal flavor.
Vine growers rarely prefer Riesling grapes as the only variety in a home vineyard. You should not be afraid of poor resistance to disease damage. In most cases, preventive measures for processing bushes are standard and largely depend on the agricultural background at the cultivation site.
Best of Germany: Riesling grapes (video)
Perhaps the Riesling variety is not very suitable for cultivation by beginner winegrowers, as well as in the presence of adverse weather conditions for this grape. However, a significant part of winegrowers and amateur gardeners grow Riesling precisely as a technical grape variety, which makes it possible to obtain excellent and high-quality white wine.